JACK: Jackfish. Young pike. (John Nott, 1726)

JACK-IN-THE-HEDGE, that caused so much trouble to the lady that gathered it in error, was probably Alliaria petiolata or hedge garlic, its name deriving from ‘jakes’ on account of its offensive smell (said one botanist, see Grigson). (William Ellis, 1750)

JACK-JUMP-ABOUT is a folk name for ground elder, as well as for wild angelica. But the most likely candidate for this lady’s discomfiture (was she the same lady as picked jack-in-the-hedge?) is birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculata). (William Ellis, 1750)

JAGGING-IRON: an instrument for ornamenting pastry etc., usually made in the form of a wheel with teeth, set in a handle. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

JAM, see GIAM (Glasse, 1747)

JAMAICA PEPPER: Pimenta officinalis. Pimento berry or allspice. (John Nott, 1726)

JAMAICA PEPPER: allspice. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

JAMAICA PEPPER, 133, see PEPPER.(Glasse, 1747)

JAMAICA SPICE, Jamaica pepper is allspice. (William Ellis, 1750)

JANACKS: a type of bread made from fine oatmeal. Not for the first time, though rarely acknowledged, Ellis is quoting Gervase Markham (d. 1637), a further instance of his relying on books written during the previous century rather than current manuals. (William Ellis, 1750)

JAMBALS and JEMELLOES, 274: both terms are derived from the French ‘jumelles, twins. Biscuits so called from the way in which the paste was twisted into double loops, as in pretzels. Alternatively called jumbles.’ (Elizabeth David, 1980) May also has jumballs, 271. (Robert May, 1660/1685)

JARMANDER, 159. An old spelling of germander. The reference is to wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys, a medicinal plant of central and southern Europe introduced to England in the Middle Ages. Margaret Savile (c. 1680 ms) and Eliza Smith (174t) have ‘waters’ which include this germander.(Glasse, 1747)

JELLY, CALVES FEET: See JE 9. Note the whites of la eggs for clarifying and 3 pounds of sugar for sweetening. Also the swanskin jellybag for filtering. (John Nott, 1726)

JELLY, HARTSHORN: See H 22 and 23. The hartshorn was used in shavings. (John Nott, 1726)

JELLY BAG: Receipt 195 refers to a flannel bag; Receipt 209 to a double bag. (John Evelyn, Cook, C17)

JEMELLOES: From jumelles, twins. Biscuits so-called from the way in which the paste was twisted into double loops, as in pretzels. Alternatively called jumbles. (John Nott, 1726)

JENNATINGS, JENNETINGS, see under APPLES.(Glasse, 1747)

JOG is a protuberance or swelling. Ellis’ use is the only citation in OED (though from The Modern Husbandman, not The Country Housewife, indicating how much the one book leaned upon the other for text and information). (William Ellis, 1750)

JOLE, jowl (of pickled salmon, 89).(Glasse, 1747)

JORDAN ALMONDS: not from Jordan, but deriving from the word jardin, i.e. cultivated, large almonds, normally supplied from Spain. (John Evelyn, Cook, C17)

JORDAN ALMONDS: Jordan is a corruption of jardin, garden. (John Nott, 1726)

JOWL: the head of a fish. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

JUGG. A ‘jug’ for jugged hare would have been such that it could be stood in a larger pan of boiling water without risk of the water getting into it. So far as can be ascertained there was no ‘jug’ specifically designed for the purpose of jugging hare. The hare was of course in pieces when jugged.(Glasse, 1747)

JUJUBES: fruit of various species of Zizyphus, including the Spina-christi. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

JULIAN: ?Julienne. (John Nott, 1726)

JULY FLOWER, julyflower: see Clove July flower. (John Evelyn, Cook, C17)

JUMBALLS: sweet cakes or biscuits, usually in the form of rings or knots, originally interlaced. The name comes from ‘gemmel’, twin finger-ring. See Wilson (1973, 269).(Glasse, 1747)

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