EAST DUMPLINGS, 112, a reference to yeast dumplings. The word east was sometimes used for yeast.(Glasse, 1747)

EASTERLING. It would be interesting to know what bird Bradley meant. The name easterling was used in a general way to indicate people (or birds, and perhaps animals) coming from countries to the east of England, e.g. Holland and Germany. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

ECHALOT or ESCHALOT: shallot, for which the French name is echalote, formerly eschalote. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

EEL POWTS, POUTS: Lota lota. Burbot, a freshwater fish. In French lotte, but not to be confused with the lotte de mer or angler fish. (John Nott, 1726)

EGG SLICE, 56. No illustration or description of an 18th century egg-slice has been located.(Glasse, 1747)

EGGS, ARTIFICIAL: See E 49, 60, 61. E 60 is an elaborate pretence from the days when eggs were forbidden on fasting days. In fact animal milk was also banned on those days, so originally almond milk must have been used. (John Nott, 1726)

EGGS TO BROIL: E 28. Cooking eggs on the end of an oven peel in a hot brick oven must have been a tricky operation requiring much practise and skill. (John Nott, 1726)

EGLANTINE: see sweet-bryar. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

ELDER VINEGAR: wine vinegar that has dried elder flowers steeped in it, left to mature in the sun or by the fire (see receipt in John Nott). (John Evelyn, Cook, C17)

ELDER VINEGAR: vinegar from elderberry wine. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

ELECAMPANE: Inula Helenium. The roots were held to have medicinal properties, particularly in the treatment of pulmonary diseases. Also made into sweetmeats. See E 68 and 69. (John Nott, 1726)

ELECAMPANE or elicampane (Inula helenium) is an important medicinal root. Ellis advises it against the itch or scabies. Others recommend it against coughs and snake venom, convulsions, contusions and bad sight. It was also deemed effective against elves. (William Ellis, 1750)

ELECTUARY: a medical conserve or paste of powder mixed with honey, syrup, etc. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

ELECTUARY is a medical conserve or paste of powder on a vehicle of honey, syrup, or treacle. Venice treacle (q.v.) was one of the most famous such electuaries. (William Ellis, 1750)

ELICAMPANE: elecampane, Inula helenium, medicinal. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

ELIXIR SALUTIS was the invention of Dr John Daffy (d. 1680) and consisted , more or less, of elecampane, liquorice, coriander, anise, senna, guaiacum, carraway, raisins, aniseed water, rhubarb and manna (The New Female Instructor, c.1810). (William Ellis, 1750)

ELLICKSANDER, see Alexanders. (Robert May, 1660/1685)

ENDIVE. Cichorium intybus, known as endive in Britain and as endive, escarole or chicory in North America. The leaves can be blanched by keeping out the light. The reference to white endive, 96, must be to this practice, which had earlier been developed in France. A contemporary description of how to grow endive and how to blanch it by earthing is given in Adam’s Luxury and Eve’s Cookery (1744, 38-9). The authors say that it is to be used as ‘a Sallet Herb in the Winter’, but also give recipes for a Ragoo of Endives, very much simpler than that of Hannah Glasse. (The Belgian witloof endive, now perhaps the best known blanched variety, was not produced until about 1850.)(Glasse, 1747)

ERINGO, 455: sea holly, Eryngium mariamum. The root, pickled or candied, was widely eaten in the 17th and 18th centuries. It had a great reputation as an aphrodisiac. (Robert May, 1660/1685)

ERINGO: sea holly (Eryngium maritimum), enjoyed primarily for its candied roots which, as Evelyn noted in his diary (see introduction), were a speciality of Colchester, and esteemed an aphrodisiac. (John Evelyn, Cook, C17)

ERINGO ROOT: sea Holly, Eryngium maritimum. The roots were candied with sugar and orange-flower-water, and believed to be aphrodisiac. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

ERINGO: Sea holly. Gerard says that the candied roots were ‘good to be given to people that are consumed and withered with age’. See E 71 and 72. (John Nott, 1726)

ERINGO ROOT: the root of Sea Holly (Eryngium maritimum). It used to be a common practice to pickle these roots and eat them. They had a reputation as an aphrodisiac. (Richard Bradley, 1736)

ERINGO ROOT. The root of the sea holly, Eryngium maritimum, which was widely eaten, pickled or candied, in the 17th and 18th centuries. The candied root was a celebrated sweet and aphrodisiac (cf Shakespeare having Falstaff say ‘Rain me eringoes . . .’).(Glasse, 1747)

ERINGO is sea holly (Eryngium maritimum). The roots were often candied and were esteemed as an aphrodisiac. (William Ellis, 1750)

ESPARAGES: see sparages. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

EVELIN, MR: See P 81. Nott evidently had access to John Evelyn’s Pomona, a treatise on Fruit trees in relations to Cider published as an appendix to his Sylva, 1664. (John Nott, 1726)

EYEBRIGHT: Euphrasia officinalis, good for the sight. (Sir Kenelm Digby, 1669)

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